Greenery was often used to decorate for winter solstice and new year celebrations, pre-Christianity. For some, the greenery symbolized the coming spring and hope for prosperity and good fortune. Wreaths symbolized victory, hospitality, the circle of the year, as well as the circle of life. Druids were known to decorate with garland, holly and mistletoe.
A quick note about mistletoe: Mistletoe was revered as a cure-all by the ancient greeks. The celtic druids thought it was special because it was green in the middle of winter. Both groups thought it had special properties of healing and re-invigorating. (please note, don’t try this at home, while american mistletoe is only slightly toxic, european mistletoe is quite toxic. It is likely the “invigorating” experience was the early stages of poisoning)
Evergreen trees are known in many cultures as symbols of longevity, renewal, endurance, and even revered as the homes of gods or goddesses. In some cultures, trees act as a symbolic gate, for the re-entry of departed loved ones.
Trees were decorated outdoors at least as far back as Saturnalia. These trees were decorated with sun, stars, gingerbread shaped like animals and gods, and perhaps coins. At some point, trees came indoors.
Christmas Eve had also been adopted as the feast day of Adam and Eve during medieval times. Some trees were decorated with apples symbolizing the apple Eve ate in the garden of Eden. These trees were also called Paradise Trees.
While it is not entirely clear whether indoor trees were part of the Saturnalia or Kalends celebrations, we can feel certain trees came indoors by 1600 in Strasburg in Protestant homes. There are records of tree decorating being denounced by a Protestant¹ theologian around the middle of the 17th century, the criticisms aimed to redirect this practice toward more appropriate celebrations of Jesus. These indoor trees were hung by the trunk from the ceiling (upside down), in the home and decorated with homemade decorations that were often food-based. They included nuts, marzipan and animals.
Indoor decorated trees slowly made their way across Europe, until in 1840 or so, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert very publicly had a Christmas tree. Quickly, opportunistic doll makers introduced tree toppers as winged fairy dolls. Birds of paradise, glockenspiels (similar to a xylophone), and flowers were also used. Glass blowers also took advantage of the new trend and introduced blown glass ornaments.
Community trees were also introduced by businesses and communities as part of their advertising efforts.
Later, trees in homes were also decorated with unwrapped gifts hung in the branches. (Wrapping gifts was not widespread until the 19th century.)
So, if you choose to celebrate with a decorated indoor tree or greenery, you are in good, and not necessarily christian, company. Greenery creates a transformative connection to nature that can be embraced by anyone.
Next up, Gifts From People You Don’t Know…
¹Protestant is a christian religion that started bubbling up as a plan to reform christianity around the 12th century and took root with Martin Luther and the Gutenberg press in the early 1500s. Protestant beliefs differ from other christian religions, such as Catholicism, in several ways, they do not revere saints, Mary as the mother of Jesus, and rebuked the purchasing of forgiveness. In addition, they do not believe in transubstantiation, the Catholic belief that the wine and bread included in the sacrament of eucharist actually change into the body and blood of Jesus.